2.39 Research by the Liquor, Hospitality and Miscellaneous Union in 2005, which analysed the impact of workers` allocation agreements, also showed that the 1993 Labour Contracts Act contained provisions far worse than those contained in prices. It found that, by law, the full-time working hours rule had been reduced from 38 to 40 hours, that the accepted minimum load was reduced from 20% to 15%, that junior rates applied until age 21, and that the consideration of unused sick leave was abolished, as was the penalty for shift work and weekends.  These are the conditions in a law that John Howard, then Leader of the Opposition, fully supported in 1995 as a system of industrial relations: “I would like to see it throughout Australia.”  2.30 Peetz argued that the use of official statistics to compare the level of hourly wages of workers in ACCORDS and collective agreements should take into account at least six factors. First, AWA staff have a disproportionate number of executives, which is the most important factor in increasing the average compensation of AWA employees. Second, the average hours of work of workers in AWAs are longer than those provided in collective agreements. Third, the average wages of AWA workers are raised by the fact that they disproportionately focus on sectors with higher average wages, such as mining, communications and finance. Fourth, at the time of the ABS survey in May 2004, a small number of workers with registered individual contracts were covered by state plans and not by the federal system. Fifth, the average wage of workers is depressed in registered collective agreements because some of them are covered by non-unionized enterprise agreements that have lower wage increases than union collective agreements. After all, about 20% of employees are not unionized, but are free to make money from trade unionists. This reduces the benefits of collective agreements.
 The evaluation is supported by Professor Bradon Ellem, who told the Committee that only a comparison of hourly wages for bonus agreements, enterprise agreements and AWA employees in the same sector, and preferably within the same employment, will identify any actual differences in pay.  Our experience since… The work within an AWA in relation to an implementation agreement with the other employees is that we were marginalized, separated from the main workers` body, and we did not have the opportunity to negotiate our positions when the negotiations came – for example, when the A.A. had to expire. We found that since these documents have come to an end and need to be renegotiated, the company has refused to negotiate with us on key elements, including our annual salary or salary increase.